Free «Air Quality and Climate Change» Essay

Air Quality and Climate Change

Introduction

Climate change is a variation in the climate system or a weather pattern, which takes a long period of time and usually occurs due to natural activities and processes (Bryner & Duffy, 2012). Currently, there are many factors that contribute to climate change, among which global warming is the greatest one. Other factors that contribute to climate change are variations in solar radiation, continental drift, among others. On the other note, according to World Health Organization, air quality is the extent to which indoor air is free from pollution by considering various contributors of air pollution, including nitrogen oxide gas, sulfur dioxide, lead, and carbon monoxide (Cadman, 2014). This paper discusses the policy responses to climate change and poor air quality and explores the advantages and disadvantages of integrating and coordinating policy responses to climate change and poor air quality. It also makes recommendations on climate change and poor air quality policy responses.

Recent Policy Responses to Climate Change

The Asia Pacific Partnership

In a bid to protect the environment, policies have been formulated to address climate change and poor air quality. The main transnational debate for climate change are United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (Cadman, 2014). However, recently, other transnational policies have been set to curb climate change. These include Asia Pacific Partnership and the G8 Agreement (Bryner & Duffy, 2012). According to Schneider (2012), Asia Pacific Partnership was established by South Korea, Australia, United States, India, and Japan in the year 2005 and was put into action in 2006. In 2007, Canada joined as a member of the partnership, and these nations contributed to close to half of the energy radiation produced globally. As noted by Matyssek et al. (2013), the partnership had three main objectives that included:

  • Working on clean energy, including noncombatant nuclear power, clean coal, and others;
  • Working with financial institutions in a bid to promote technology for the benefit of the environment;
  • Working in collaboration with private companies to promote the use of clean and efficient energy.

Asia Pacific Partnership finished its mandate in April, 2011, while some of its agendas went on. According to World Nuclear Association, the Asia Pacific Partnership Power Generation & Transmission Task Force was transformed to GSEP (Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership) that came up with clean energy initiative (Matyssek et al., 2013).

The G8 Agreement

According to Thomas and Callan, another policy response to climate change is the G8 agreement (2010). It includes the following countries: France, Italy, China, United States, Russia, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom. It was established in 2005 and had the main objective of creating accessibility to reliable energy services and protecting the environmental quality. The G8 agreement had conference in Russia, 2006, in which they agreed to work on the following issues:

  • Minimizing the inadequacy of energy;
  • Tackling climate change;
  • Making a diversification in the energy sector;
  • Ensuring energy efficiency;
  • Increasing energy stability;
  • Ensuring the energy sites physical security is taken care of (Thomas & Callan 2010).

Advantages and Disadvantages of Integrating and Coordinating Policy Responses to Climate Change

According to the information provided by the World Nuclear Association, there are many benefits that have arisen as a result of the implementation of the Asia Pacific Agreement (APP). These are:

  • Clean energy, which is efficient, has been developed, and its market expanded globally in various sectors of the economy. Clean energy comes in the form of hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, and many others. These offer the advantage of reducing the rate of pollution.
  • Various projects that meet the objectives of APP have been funded by various financial institutions (for example, the World Bank). This is because the main objective of APP is averting climate change.
  • Energy efficiency and the use of safe energy sources have been achieved (for example, the use of clean coal).

The implementation of the Asia Pacific Agreement has also brought a disadvantage of straining the natural resources for the production of clean energy. However, the advantages of it outweigh the disadvantages.

The implementation of the G8 agreement has the following advantages:

  • The energy sector has been diversified, since there are many sources of energy.
  • Energy efficiency has been achieved through provision of energy sources that have high energy content.

On the other hand, the implementation of the G8 has a big disadvantage in that the energy availability has only been made to the G8 countries, while the rest of the countries still contribute to global warming.

Recent Policy Responses to Poor Air Quality

There have been policies formulated to minimize poor air quality. In the US, for example, there are many policies that are in place to address the issue of poor air quality. These include the Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance and Pollution Prevention Program Strategic Plan (Cadman, 2014). 
The Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance Policy

As stated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance is a policy signed by President Barack Obama in 2009. Matyssek et al. (2013) clarifies that this order had the following issues to address:

  • Boosting energy efficiency;
  • Lessening of the greenhouse gas emissions;
  • Safeguarding and protecting water springs;
  • Averting pollution;
  • Encouraging reuse and recycling;
  • Ensuring the use of environmentally friendly technologies (Matyssek et al., 2013).

This order was to take into consideration other factors such as building structures in convenient locations in a bid to minimize pollution as much as possible. It also fortifies the vivacity and livability of the citizens due to reduced pollution. This policy has seen significant drop in greenhouse emissions by US according to statistics provided at the UNEP meetings in 2013. The level of air pollution has also reduced by a big percentage according to government source (EPA) (Thomas & Callan, 2010).

Introduction

Climate change is a variation in the climate system or a weather pattern, which takes a long period of time and usually occurs due to natural activities and processes (Bryner & Duffy, 2012). Currently, there are many factors that contribute to climate change, among which global warming is the greatest one. Other factors that contribute to climate change are variations in solar radiation, continental drift, among others. On the other note, according to World Health Organization, air quality is the extent to which indoor air is free from pollution by considering various contributors of air pollution, including nitrogen oxide gas, sulfur dioxide, lead, and carbon monoxide (Cadman, 2014). This paper discusses the policy responses to climate change and poor air quality and explores the advantages and disadvantages of integrating and coordinating policy responses to climate change and poor air quality. It also makes recommendations on climate change and poor air quality policy responses.

Recent Policy Responses to Climate Change

The Asia Pacific Partnership

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            In a bid to protect the environment, policies have been formulated to address climate change and poor air quality. The main transnational debate for climate change are United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (Cadman, 2014). However, recently, other transnational policies have been set to curb climate change. These include Asia Pacific Partnership and the G8 Agreement (Bryner & Duffy, 2012). According to Schneider (2012), Asia Pacific Partnership was established by South Korea, Australia, United States, India, and Japan in the year 2005 and was put into action in 2006. In 2007, Canada joined as a member of the partnership, and these nations contributed to close to half of the energy radiation produced globally. As noted by Matyssek et al. (2013), the partnership had three main objectives that included:

        i.            Working on clean energy, including noncombatant nuclear power, clean coal, and others;

      ii.            Working with financial institutions in a bid to promote technology for the benefit of the environment;

    iii.            Working in collaboration with private companies to promote the use of clean and efficient energy.

            Asia Pacific Partnership finished its mandate in April, 2011, while some of its agendas went on. According to World Nuclear Association, the Asia Pacific Partnership Power Generation & Transmission Task Force was transformed to GSEP (Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership) that came up with clean energy initiative (Matyssek et al., 2013).

The G8 Agreement

According to Thomas and Callan, another policy response to climate change is the G8 agreement (2010). It includes the following countries: France, Italy, China, United States, Russia, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom. It was established in 2005 and had the main objective of creating accessibility to reliable energy services and protecting the environmental quality. The G8 agreement had conference in Russia, 2006, in which they agreed to work on the following issues:

                                i.            Minimizing the inadequacy of energy;

                              ii.            Tackling climate change;

                            iii.            Making a diversification in the energy sector;

                            iv.            Ensuring energy efficiency;

                              v.            Increasing energy stability;

                            vi.            Ensuring the energy sites physical security is taken care of (Thomas & Callan 2010).

Advantages and Disadvantages of Integrating and Coordinating Policy Responses to Climate Change

            According to the information provided by the World Nuclear Association, there are many benefits that have arisen as a result of the implementation of the Asia Pacific Agreement (APP). These are:

        i.            Clean energy, which is efficient, has been developed, and its market expanded globally in various sectors of the economy. Clean energy comes in the form of hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, and many others. These offer the advantage of reducing the rate of pollution.

      ii.            Various projects that meet the objectives of APP have been funded by various financial institutions (for example, the World Bank). This is because the main objective of APP is averting climate change.

    iii.            Energy efficiency and the use of safe energy sources have been achieved (for example, the use of clean coal).

            The implementation of the Asia Pacific Agreement has also brought a disadvantage of straining the natural resources for the production of clean energy. However, the advantages of it outweigh the disadvantages.

The implementation of the G8 agreement has the following advantages:

                                i.            The energy sector has been diversified, since there are many sources of energy.

                              ii.            Energy efficiency has been achieved through provision of energy sources that have high energy content.

            On the other hand, the implementation of the G8 has a big disadvantage in that the energy availability has only been made to the G8 countries, while the rest of the countries still contribute to global warming.

Recent Policy Responses to Poor Air Quality

There have been policies formulated to minimize poor air quality. In the US, for example, there are many policies that are in place to address the issue of poor air quality. These include the Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance and Pollution Prevention Program Strategic Plan (Cadman, 2014). 

The Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance Policy

As stated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance is a policy signed by President Barack Obama in 2009. Matyssek et al. (2013) clarifies that this order had the following issues to address:

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                                i.            Boosting energy efficiency;

                              ii.            Lessening of the greenhouse gas emissions;

                            iii.            Safeguarding and protecting water springs;

                            iv.            Averting pollution;

                              v.            Encouraging reuse and recycling;

                            vi.            Ensuring the use of environmentally friendly technologies (Matyssek et al., 2013).

            This order was to take into consideration other factors such as building structures in convenient locations in a bid to minimize pollution as much as possible. It also fortifies the vivacity and livability of the citizens due to reduced pollution. This policy has seen significant drop in greenhouse emissions by US according to statistics provided at the UNEP meetings in 2013. The level of air pollution has also reduced by a big percentage according to government source (EPA) (Thomas & Callan, 2010).

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