Free «Types of Knowledge Observation» Essay
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Review of subject knowledge is an important quality in a teacher’s career. It establishes what a kid needs to know and at what time the information has to be taught. The Piaget stages of development describe the stages of ordinary intellectual development from infancy to adulthood. These include; thought judgment and knowledge. Under this discussion, we are going to give more emphasis to knowledge (Long, 2000).
Piaget stages of intellectual development are:
- Sensory motor (Birth through to 2 years)
- Preoperational (Between the age of 2 years to 7 years)
- Concrete Operational (Between the age of 7 years to 11 years)
- Formal Operational (Adolescence through adulthood)
It is worthwhile noting that some children may pass through the stages at different ages than mentioned above showing characteristics of more than one stage at a time.
Infants are only aware of what is in front of them focusing on what they see, do and their physical interaction with their environment. They constantly experiment by throwing things around, putting things in their mouth. At the age of 7 to 9 months, infants begin to know that an object exists which is a sign that memory is developing. When an infant is able to crawl, stand and walk, it’s an indication of an increased cognitive development. Towards the end of this stage, the infant has developed some symbolic abilities, an indication of early language development.
During this stage, symbolic thinking is possible. Memory and imagination which allows them to distinguish the past and the future also develops. However, their thinking is not logical.
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Concrete Operational Stages
At this stage, the child demonstrates logical and concrete reasoning. Here, they are aware of external events realizing that one’s own thought is unique from that of another person (Ellis, 2009). Operational thinking also develops at this stage where the child is able to perform reversible mental actions.
Formal Operational Stage
At this stage, the infant is able to use symbols in a logical way in abstract concepts such as science and algebra. Thinking about multiple variables in a systematic way, developing hypothesis, and considering possibilities becomes possible. They are no longer ignorant about justice.
Having understood the stages of development in a child, then we are base our discussion on the three forms of knowledge which are physical, logical and social arbitrary knowledge.
This covers the investigation of how an infant acquire expectation or rule about the physical events which specifies for them what the possible outcome of events are. When faced with inconsistent event from their rules, they are surprised evidenced by increased attention. Moreover, the lack of physical knowledge leads infants to respond to violation events as though they were expected and to respond to non-violation events as though they were unexpected. In order to develop a sense of the physical events, infants develop rules of how the events might work. However, these rules tend to be primitive since the infants have a difficulty in determining what violation and non-violation events are. This acts as a motivation in the development of an infant’s physical knowledge. In the case of physical events as occlusion, with time, infants learn that wide objects can be fully hidden be hide wide but not narrow occluders.
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Additionally, in the case of support physical events, early infants assume that an object will be stable if 66 percent and not 50 percent of the bottom surface is supported. With time, this rule changes and infants get to realize that 50 percent is typically sufficient to ensure stability. Finally, other developments that involve the change from qualitative to quantitative reasoning are noted. Qualitative strategy is one in which one is required to encode and to use the information about absolute quantities. On the other hand, a strategy is said to be quantitative if it requires one to encode and use the information about only relative quantities. It is evident that an early infant can reason qualitatively and not quantitatively about the height information in an occlusion event.
The purpose of physical knowledge as the activity of how a child makes a hypothesis about what may happen when they interact with objects makes them observe, test and reflect on what makes sense in their experiences about the physical world they live.
In order to expose infants to the reality of the physical world they live in, then their instructor needs to be aware of how to do this:
- Use of Boarder and rollers- combining different rollers and boarders the children are able to know the fastest and the safest way of moving and also the exploration can include balancing.
- Use of air dynamics- Children need to learn the effects of blowing though tube objects of different diameters and lengths. This provides them with information at how difficult it is to move the objects and how much wind is required to produce the best sound. The use of objects of different mass and shapes provides information on mass and friction.
- Ring Toss- By experiments, a child is able to know where to stand to toss the ring, how much force is required, what trajectory and what size of the ring to use.
Ideally, group discussion and teamwork introduces negotiation to the above activities.
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Logical Mathematical Knowledge
Physical knowledge provides the bases for logical-mathematical knowledge. It involves construction of knowledge about connections between objects. This knowledge only exists in the minds of an individual. They involve relationships developed by each individual.
In understanding how to apply the logical-mathematics knowledge in class, then the instructor needs to know when to help students and when to let them puzzle it out all by themselves. For example, if a student is working on a bulb, a wire and a battery, trying to get the bulb to light, the instructor ought to leave the child to work on it. If the child is so frustrated, them the teacher needs to engage (Salhi, 2006). If the teacher helps the child entirely, then he/she risks the child’s self-esteem when it comes to sciences and mathematics and treats logical-mathematics as a social or transmitted knowledge.
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A child need not be robbed of the opportunity to think for themselves since the brain is always working.
Social arbitrary knowledge
This involves the transmission of social norms such as customs, particular names and labels for things. Additionally, it’s anything that is clearly culturally determined and thus arbitrary. Children cannot construct it but, must be given by someone else Lanham, (Rowman & Littlefield Education1998). Social knowledge is passed from culture to a child through person to person training books or other media (Beker & Eisikovits, 1991). Therefore, this knowledge is fundamental in social judgments.
In order to develop social knowledge to a child, then the teacher needs to provide an environment where the students are able to network with each other. One way of doing this is to encourage teamwork and group discussions. Providing this interaction builds the child’s preparatory mechanism thus equipping them with the competence to participate in social activities.
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Additionally, the teacher also needs to encourage friendship among the students as it serves as a diverse function in children’s lives. The teacher should also encourage students to play together which also promotes the social skill development in the child. Children with disabilities also should be embraced in order to strengthen their interpersonal relationships and self-esteem levels. This should be done by involving them in social activities such as games and sports, class participation and teamwork (Yaffe & Aranda, 2011).
In conclusion, the development of knowledge in a child is necessary to a teacher’s preparation. Enough attention should be given to infant children in order to ground their children on reflection on practice and self-knowledge. A teacher should also induce a critical element in the child aimed at modeling the child with supportive relationship that creates meaningful and transformational learning experience based on the forms of knowledge that a child first acquires.