Free «Marijuana» Essay
Marijuana is a narcotic substance which was derived from the cannabis varieties with the highest content of psychoactive substances. Feminized cannabis seeds are the seeds from which female plants of cannabis (sinsemilla) can be grown (Benson et al., 1990). Feminized varieties are homogeneous; this means that they will look more like each other than other plants from conventional seeds. Harvest will be more uniform. Quality (taste, aroma, and strength) of marijuana obtained from feminized seeds is superior than that got from conventional seeds. Under optimal growing conditions, feminized cannabis seeds will produce only female plants. If conditions are less than optimal or a plant is subjected to stress, population will be dominantly male and hermaphrodite. Most professional growers prefer feminized seeds to usual for several reasons. Feminized cannabis seeds are more expensive and have higher quality.
For over 5000 years, marijuana has been used as a psychoactive substance. In ancient India and Eastern countries, the use of it as a tool for healing (as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, and antiemetic) was spread. Since the '60s, when marijuana became a part of the hippie movement, it did not lose its popularity till the present days (Bonnie et al., 1999). This substance is considered to a drug, but it is a “light” one (Zuardi, 2006). Today, there are more and more calls that marijuana should be legalized; in fact, it is already done in some countries. However, there are opponents of this substance who have a significant basis of arguments. Back in 1972, the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Addiction found that this substance is not entirely safe (Ilan, Smith, Gevins, 2004). Since then, thousands of studies have been conducted involving humans and animals as well as simple cell structures. Hence, around the world, cannabis is forbidden since it contains the psychoactive substance (THC). The exceptions are some countries which allow a certain amount for growing and personal use: the Netherlands, Canada, the CzechRepublic, some states in the U.S., Spain, Portugal, and Zimbabwe (Kessler et al., 2005).
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Marijuana consists of dried, crushed flowers and leaves of cannabis. Its intoxicating properties depend on the content of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), which causes a narcotic effect. This is a substance similar to tobacco, which is made by drying leaves and flower tops of cannabis
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Addiction to marijuana is alike to alcohol dependence or any other drug. Despite the fact that the dependence on marijuana is not formed at once and it may take months or even years, marijuana remains among one of the most dangerous drugs and opens a door to more serious drugs. There are two ways to marijuana dependence. Firstly, there is psychological dependence – a person begins to think about where to buy drugs and how to find money for it. Secondly, there is physical dependence – a body gets used to the drug, it becomes a part of the metabolic process causing physical craving. This is reflected in poor physical condition if the drug is not present (Ashtari et al., 2009).
Hashish is a resinous material of a cannabis plant which is popular among drug users due to high concentration of THC. It is believed that THC is a chemical responsible for most of the psychoactive effects of the plant (Bock, 2000).
Marijuana kills brain cells. Using this tool, one can permanently break the time structure of the brain and its functions. There will be losses of memory, cognitive failures, deterioration of a personality, and performance degradation (Shuping et al., 1980). Under the influence of substances, people lose their rational judgment (Ilan, 2004). Continuing the same use, marijuana leads to a mental disorder (Singer, 1979). Undoubtedly, marijuana produces immediate and permanent changes in thinking, representation, and processing of information (Tirman et al., 1988). The thing is that it is rather difficult to establish any links between marijuana intakes and memory capabilities. Uncomfortable condition can persist for 45 days after the rejection of marijuana. It is not an easy period, but a person should go through it to stop taking marijuana forever. If a person feels that he/she finds it hard to go through this period alone, he/she should contact experts for help.
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There are several sites and forums which offer a precise description of where to go and how to buy. Even though it is illegal to but a drug, there is an abundance of options. Still, cannabis homeopathic medicines are available and can be protected by law since they contain small amounts of drugs.
2727 BC – the first documented use of cannabis as a medicine in China. In 500 AD the plant reached Europe through India and Africa.
1492 – Christopher Columbus brought hemp seeds to the New World.
1797 – Hemp was the main crop grown by George Washington in his estate Mount Viernon.
1890 – Queen Victoria ordered cannabis to relieve menstrual pain.
1937 – Federal law banning marijuana in the U.S.
1942 – U.S. military used marijuana as a “truth serum” during interrogations.
1965 – Statistics recorded that one million of Americans tried marijuana.
1980 – The anti-drug campaign of Ronald Reagan.
1980 – Every thirty seconds one American is arrested for violation of the prohibition of drugs.
1996 – Amendment 215 was adopted to legalize marijuana in California, where individuals were allowed to grow it for medical use.
Today: marijuana is the most profitable agriculture in the U.S.
The ban on cultivation and use of cannabis appeared in a criminal law around 60ies of the last century. Up to this point, a person could grow and use any derivative of cannabis without fear of prosecution. In the U.S. in the second half of the 19-early 20th century hemp drugs were sold without restriction in treating migraines, stomach ulcers and other diseases. Psychoactive features of cannabis were explored by Americans due to Mexican immigrants. Then, cannabis gained particular popularity among jazz musicians. In the early 1930's, there have been several major lobbying campaigns, and the U.S. Congress in 1937 passed a law on the taxable sale of marijuana with high taxes, that its use was actually banned. Despite attempts to change the legal status of cannabis, it, along with hard drugs and strong hallucinogens, was included in the federal list of hazardous and therapeutically useless substances.