Free «The World Wars and Russian Revolution» Essay
The world wars of the 20th century put the world civilization on the verge of destruction and were an ordeal for humanity. At the same time, they were a reflection of fundamental changes which took place in the world being the terrible consequences of the process of civilization. In fact, World War I (WWI) and World War II (WWII) were the most destructive military conflicts in human history. Besides, WWI became a catalyst for Russian Revolution of 1917. The goal of this essay is to analyze the events that occurred during both world wars and Russian Revolution.
WWI lasted from 1914 to 1918 and was one of the most violent and large-scaled conflicts in human history (Frankforter and Spellman 749). Among the main causes of this war there was the desire of all countries involved to seize new territories, divide the colonies and eliminate competitors. Besides, the countries wanted to distract their people’s attention from internal problems (Frankforter and Spellman 750). For example, Germany sought expansion of their holdings and dominance in the world politics, France strived to return Alsace and Lorraine, Austria-Hungary had territorial claims to several countries, and England planned to destroy Germany as its main rival in trade. Italy aimed to extend its dominance in the Balkans, and Russia wanted to seize Constantinople. After the war, Germany reduced its territory, lost its colonies and was forced to pay reparations. Besides, the territorial and political map of the world suffered great changes. WWI was a catalyst for industrial development, but the consequences of the war were disastrous for the economy of most countries.
Russian Revolution took place on October 25-26, 1917 (Frankforter and Spellman 780). In fact, Russian Revolution caused major changes in the position of all classes of the society. The predominance of military production led to higher prices for consumer products causing national conflicts and discontent among the masses (Frankforter and Spellman 785). The fall of the authority of the Russian Provisional Government which was unable to solve the society’s problems also played an important role at the beginning of the revolution. The authoritative leader Lenin did everything for the spread of socialist ideas in the society. Because of the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks formed the new government and established the dictatorship of the proletariat. Furthermore, they proclaimed equality for all people and eliminated private property.
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In fact, WWI and WWII have similar features that prove their connection (Frankforter and Spellman 845). Each of the world wars began with aggressive actions of authoritarian political regimes that conducted the revanchist policy. At first, aggressors scored military victories, seized, and annexed foreign territories (Frankforter and Spellman 845). The victims of aggression were forced to armed resistance that resulted in massive casualties on both sides. At the end of the wars, the stubborn resistance led to the victory of the coalition. The main result of the world wars was a more democratic and less aggressive world. (Frankforter and Spellman 855).
WWII was the most violent and destructive conflict in human history. This conflict began on September 1, 1939 (Frankforter and Spellman 855). Germany and its allies made the European blitzkrieg and conquered many countries. This phase included German attack on Poland, occupation of Denmark and Norway, and beginning of the attack on a number of other countries. Besides, the Tripartite Pact was signed by the aggressor countries and their satellites. The second phase of the war began on June 22, 1941 and lasted until the middle of November, 1942 (Frankforter and Spellman 866). Germany attacked the Soviet Union, but the Barbarossa plan failed. At that stage, there was also the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the U.S. entry into the war. The next major step was the period from the second half of November, 1942 to the end of 1943 (Frankforter and Spellman 870). At that time, Germany was gradually losing the strategic initiative. During that time, there were the Battle of Stalingrad, the British counteroffensive in North Africa and the collapse of the fascist regime of Mussolini. Besides, at the Tehran conference, the coalition countries decided to open a second front. The fourth stage which began at the end of 1943 ended with the capture of Berlin and the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany on May 9, 1945 (Frankforter and Spellman 875). This stage marked the liberation of the majority of countries and active attack on all German fronts. The final phase of the war lasted from May 10, 1945 to September 2, 1945. During this period, the United States used nuclear weapons in Japan in response to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. World War II ended with Japan’s surrender (Frankforter and Spellman 882).
Consequently, WWI and WWII became the most large-scale conflicts in human history. Both wars resulted from the military aggression of several big authoritarian nations, and at the first stages of the wars the aggressors were winning. Through the efforts of the coalition, the aggressors were stopped. These wars resulted in destruction and economic decline. In fact, the wars have their general causes, consequences, and the main events that prove their connection.